For optimal operation and improvement of the possibilities of the renewable energy sources, the use of batteries is necessary. They allow energy storage at higher production of solar and wind power.
Solar panels can only produce during the daylight hours, and wind turbines do so as a result of varying wind strength and speed. The implementation of batteries for the storage of electricity helps to balance the moment of energy production and its consumption, price optimization and balancing of the entire network.
Batteries are devices that convert chemical energy directly into electricity. They are called rechargeable batteries and the most commonly used types are:
Lithium-ion batteries – found mostly in portable electronics because they store a very large amount of electricity in a very small battery. But their production in larger sizes is expensive and complicated. In addition, with their use, their effectiveness deteriorates over time.
Lead-acid batteries – have applications mainly at higher powers. Despite their ease of production and widespread use around the world, they are an older technology that has its drawbacks, mainly in their lifespan, and in the impact on the environment if improperly stored.
On the innovation horizon, new battery technologies are also being developed to replace existing ones with longer-lasting and cost-effective ones. A similar example is the supercapacitor (ultracapacitor). In comparison, it has a much longer life than a lead-acid battery and does not rely on any chemical reactions. It can be completely diluted and stored in any condition. It charges much faster and the batteries last much longer than before. The main obstacle is the lack of mass production, which would make them economically efficient and widely applied.